An ovarian cyst is a sac filled with fluid that grows inside or on the ovary. These cysts heal on their own but sometimes rupture or become twisted. This condition needs to be treated immediately since it can result to infection, bleeding and other serious condition.
Women can develop 2 types of ovarian cysts – functional or complex. A functional ovarian cyst forms during ovulation and can swell with fluid. Complex cysts have solid areas inside or contain bumps or can have plenty of fluid-filled areas. Functional and complex cysts can rupture.
Causes of ruptured ovarian cyst
- Pressure placed on the cysts from playing sports, sexual activity or an injury to the area.
- Hormonal changes during the monthly period
- Abdominal pain especially in the lower belly and pelvic area due to bleeding of the ruptured ovarian cysts. The pain can spread into the lower back and into the thighs.
- Pain happens during the monthly period
- Nausea due to leakage of fluid or blood into the peritoneal cavity
- Vomiting due to fluid that leaks from the ruptured cyst which is filled with blood that can irritate the peritoneal cavity.
- Tenderness in the area of the ovary
- Mild fever
- A sudden, sharp or stabbing pain that can happen on one side
Functional ovarian cyst
- Take the prescribed over-the-counter pain medication such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen to lessen the pain and swelling.
- Apply heat on the abdomen and lower back for at least 20 minutes every hour. Heat can be in the form of a hot water bottle or a heating pad.
- Take plenty of rest at least a few days. Avoid performing physical activities such as strenuous exercises for fast healing of the condition.
- Take the prescribed birth control pills to lessen the chance of developing a new cyst in the future menstrual cycles.
Complex ruptured ovarian cyst
- Take the prescribed oral analgesic such as acetaminophen or morphine sulfate to lessen severe pain and inflammation.
- If bleeding is severe, fluids or blood can be given intravenously. This is the fastest way of delivering fluids and medications throughout the body.
- Laparoscopy is done which is a procedure where a small complex cyst is removed. A small cut is made on the belly where a microscope is inserted. The cyst is removed through the cuts in the skin. The cuts are stitched up after the cyst is removed. The procedure causes minimal pain and fast recovery. In most cases, the patient can go home same day or the next day.